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- ItemEffective Online Instructional Competencies as Perceived by Online University Faculty and Students: A Sequel Study(MERLOT, 2011) Bailie, JeffreyIn this sequel investigation, the author utilized a modified Delphi technique to validate whether graduate level online faculty and learners could reach a consensus on the criticality of previously identified online faculty competencies. Comparisons of the leading competencies identified for online instruction and the differing modalities from previous investigations were examined in this study to determine whether they continue to be representative of those contained in the literature. This investigation confirmed that when a modified Delphi approach was instituted, competencies that were identified by similar research studies over the past decade continue to be regarded by vested constituents as important. Finally, it was shown that a consensus between what online faculty and online students perceived as important instructional competencies continues to be possible.
- ItemThe Criticality of Verbal Immediacy in Online Instruction: A Modified Delphi Study(Journal of Educators Online, 2012) Bailie, JeffreyIn this 2011 investigation, a modified Delphi technique was introduced to determine whether an informed group of post-secondary online faculty and students could arrive at a consensus regarding the importance of previously recognized verbal immediacy behaviors. Two expert panels were presented with Gorham’s (1988) Verbal Immediacy Scale and tasked with determining those behaviors perceived as being the most important in the online learning venue. The result of the study confirmed that a consensus of opinion between online students and faculty is indeed possible, albeit resulting in a new iteration of Gorham’s scale. A discussion of the findings suggests that further consideration for the development of an updated version of a verbal immediacy scale specific to online instructional behaviors may be warranted.
- ItemWhat Online Students Want Compared to What Institutions Expect(Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 2014) Bailie, JeffreyThe purpose of this study was to examine whether a set of instructional practices commonly prescribed to online faculty in the higher education setting were consistent with the expectations of a group of experienced online student participants. Online faculty performance conventions were collected from 20 institutions of higher learning located in the United States. The collective practices yielded three primary domains related to administrative faculty performance expectations in online instruction: Communication, Presence/Engagement, and Timeliness/Responsiveness. Undergraduate participants representing a cross section of colleges and universities in the United States were surveyed to determine their expectations for online faculty as compared to scaled items derived from the lists of participating institutions. The results of this investigation offer practitioners insight into how administrative instructional guidelines relate to the user demands of an informed group of undergraduate online students.
- ItemDo Instructional Protocols Placed on Online Faculty Correlate with Learner Expectations?(Academic and Business Research Institute, 2014) Bailie, JeffreyThe purpose of this study was to examine whether a set of instructional practices commonly prescribed to online faculty in the higher education setting were consistent with the expectations of a group of experienced online student participants. Online faculty performance conventions were collected from 20 institutions of higher learning located in the United States. The collective practices yielded three primary domains related to administrative faculty performance expectations in online instruction: Communication, Presence/Engagement, and Timeliness/Responsiveness. Undergraduate participants representing a cross section of colleges and universities in the United States were surveyed to determine their expectations for online faculty as compared to scaled items derived from the lists of participating institutions. The results of this investigation offer practitioners insight into how administrative instructional guidelines relate to the user demands of an informed group of undergraduate online students.
- ItemPerceptions and expectations of on line graduate students regrading synchronous events(Academic and Business Research Institute, 2015) Bailie, JeffreyThe purpose of this study was to gain an increased understanding of the perceptions and expectations of a group of experienced online student participants regarding synchronous events in the higher learning setting. Areas of inquiry posed to online student panelists included whether they expected live events to be included in their classes, and whether participants believed that synchronous events influenced learner performance and persistence. Further, queries were made relative to whether attendance at synchronous events should be required and if Webcams should be mandatory for everyone in attendance. The findings gleaned from this investigation afford practitioners further insight as to how instructional practices regarding synchronous events correspond with the expressed interests of an informed group of online learners.
- ItemOnline Graduate Instruction: What Faculty Consider Reasonable In Relation to What Students Expect(MERLOT, 2015) Bailie, JeffreyIn this investigation, the author utilized a modified Delphi technique to validate whether graduate level online faculty and learners could achieve a consensus of opinion relative to a range of instructional practices commonly associated with online education. A list of administrative guidelines pertaining to online instruction collected from an assortment of post-secondary institutions in the United States was examined by participants to address whether a consensus could be established between what online faculty and online students perceived as important instructional practices in online delivery. The findings of this study offer insight into how administratively driven instructional practices in the areas of Communication, Presence & Engagement, and Timeliness/Responsiveness relate to the expectations of online learners, and the realisms of online faculty.
- ItemCreating a Positive Classroom Environment to Meet the Needs of the Foster Child(Project Innovation, 2016) LaCour, Misty; McGlawn, Penny; Dees, LauraFoster children often struggle socially, emotionally, and academically in the school setting leading to school failure. By establishing a positive classroom environment, teachers can provide for the needs of the foster child while encouraging academic achievement. This study seeks to determine teacher best practices for meeting the needs of foster children to ensure success in the classroom. Themes emerged from the research indicating teachers’ best practices for incorporating proactive disciplinary techniques, praise and encouragement into the daily routine, and effective homework strategies. These best practices can be implemented by the classroom teacher to ensure the success of the foster children.
- ItemImproving Literacy Development in Foster Children: Best Practices for the K-6 Classroom(Common Ground Research Networks, 2016) LaCour, Misty; McGlawn, Penny; Dees, LauraFoster children who have experienced abuse or neglect often struggle academically, particularly in the area of literacy development. This research study explored current teachers’ best practices for improving literacy development in foster children in the K-6 classroom. Themes emerged indicating the teachers’ perceptions of meeting the needs of foster children, especially as related to improving literacy skills and encouraging literacy development. These best practices can be implemented by K-6 teachers to assist in preventing school failure for foster children.
- ItemHow Can Educators Leverage Diversity Within Schools?(ASCD, 2016-03-28) LaCour, MistyLeveraging diversity in schools is about honoring, celebrating, and respecting our differences across cultures. Teachers must engage in culturally responsive teaching in order to leverage diversity within schools. In order to do this, we must have open conversations about diversity, both with other educators and with our students (Cruz, 2015). “When we learn more about who we are—and who students are—culturally, we’ll become more conscious of how we influence students” (Ginsberg, 2015).
- ItemExploring Teachers' Use of Tablets in the Classroom: Tools for Engaging At-Risk Learners(Common Ground Research Networks, 2017) Dees, Laura; LaCour, Misty; Lockwood, RobertThis research study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore how teachers typically use tablets in the classroom and how the use of this technology meets the needs of at-risk learners. The participants of the study were forty-one in-field P-12 educators in the southeastern United States. The results of this study indicated the frequency by which teachers use tablets to support classroom instruction as well as the specific uses of tablet technology in the classroom. The study results also indicated teachers’ specific applications for effectively implementing tablets in their classrooms. In addition, teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of tablets in supporting the learning for at-risk students in the classroom was explored.
- ItemCan You Hear Me Now? An Examination of Online Learner Communication Preference(Academic and Business Research Institute, 2017) Bailie, JeffreyDevelopments in technology including the Internet, social media, and mobile devices have opened the choices of available means for communication in the online classroom. The emerging means of communication between online students and faculty has spawned an interest for an examination of pedagogical influences in relation to existing theoretical frameworks and best practices. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the communication preferences of a group of students enrolled in an online program of higher education. A panel of 78 knowledgeable online learners was offered a survey that was intended to examine certain preferences and expectations for online communication with faculty and classmates. The results of this investigation offer practitioners insight into communication media preferences of an informed group of undergraduate online students.
- ItemConstructing Student Knowledge in the Online Classroom: The Effectiveness of Focal Prompts(Project Innovation, 2017-01) Howell, Ginger; LaCour, Misty; McGlawn, PennyThe purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three Structured Divergent discussion board prompt designs on knowledge construction in a graduate online course. According to Andrews (1980), the form of the question affects the extent of the response within a discussion. The Playground prompt, the Brainstorming prompt, and the Focal prompt were implemented in an online classroom to determine impact on student knowledge construction. The Interaction Analysis Model (1AM) tool was used to investigate the online discussion posts. Concept maps were also developed representing the concepts learned. The Focal Prompt design proved most effective in encouraging knowledge construction among online graduate students. The Focal Prompt design requires students to choose an argument and support the view point with a rationale. By doing so, students were better able to construct knowledge as related to course content. The results of this study can be used by instructors and curriculum designers to create a more effective online experience which furthers student knowledge and learning in the online classroom.
- ItemMeeting the Needs of the Foster Child: Perceptions of the K-6 Teacher(Common Ground Research Networks, 2018) McGlawn, Penny; LaCour, MistyA growing number of children are entering the foster-care system every year. The trauma experienced by these children negatively impacts them. This current study sought to determine the perceptions of foster children by thirty-six teacher participants. The results indicate a need to increase teacher’s awareness of foster children and the unique challenges they face. This study has brought a heightened awareness of the teachers’ perceptions toward this growing population of students relative to the challenges facing foster children. Teachers must be aware of the issues these students face while providing adequate interventions to meet the needs of these students.
- ItemThe Disillusion of Victorian Youth: Oliver Twist's Descent into Gang Life(The Journal of International Social Research, 2018) LaCour, MistyWith the inability to secure adequate employment to sustain life, individuals in the Victorian Era developed street gangs as a substitution for jobs. During this era, novelists published writings depicting this rise of street gangs in London. As some of these novelists met harsh consequences due to their realistic representation of these events, Charles Dickens masterfully depicted the disillusion of Victorian youth by embedding the issue of street gangs within his works. Oliver Twist represents street gang activity prominent in the Victorian Era through the characters of Sikes, Fagin, and their adolescent gang members. As a street gang leader, Fagin substitutes as an authoritarian father-figure for homeless adolescents, using methods of psychological abuse as a means to manipulate,coerce, and control the gang members, leading to Oliver’s inclusion in the gang. Oliver’s experiences in Fagin’s gang depict the events of the street gangs during the era as well as the psychological impacts of gang involvement on youth.
- ItemThe Classroom Management Experience of Educators in Diverse Classrooms: Informing Teacher Education(Arkansas Association of Teacher Educators, 2018-03) Dees, Laura; LaCour, MistyThe purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the phenomenological nature of seventy two education professionals and to report findings to express the cognitive strategies employed regarding classroom management. The research questions sought to determine participant’s perceptions of classroom management strategies to meet the needs of diverse learners in the classroom. The research study findings suggest that in any classroom with management strategies, students respond to caring teachers. Therefore, a culturally responsive classroom that provides differentiation of classroom strategies appears to be the best for students with diverse needs. These results can inform teacher educators as to the strategies identified by current teachers as most effective in providing classroom management for diverse classrooms.
- ItemClosing the Excellence Gap for English Learners and Students of Color(2018-05-29) Nyberg, Julia; LaCour, Misty; Dees, Laura; Hansen, LaurieCurrently, a gap exists in which English Learners (ELs) “are persistently underrepresented in advanced classes and in programs for students identified as gifted” (Coronado & Lewis, 2017, p. 238). While the number of ELs has increased in classrooms across the nation, the “excellence gap” has widened over recent years due to the underrepresentation of students of color in gifted programs. One strategy that school districts can implement to close the excellence gap and open the opportunity to support gifted programs for ELs and students of color is by providing a family engagement workshop which addresses the needs of underrepresented gifted students.
- ItemEffect of Pre-Term Course Access on Online Learner Performance(Academic and Business Research Institute (AABRI), 2019) Bailie, JeffreyAsynchronous delivery of instructional content makes access to online course material ahead of the official start of the academic term possible. Online courses can be “flipped” to provide enrolled students with an opportunity for access to the instructional content (course announcements, calendar dates, assigned readings, individual/group learning activities, select graded assignments, etc.) ahead of the official start of the term. This paper presents the findings of an investigation that sought to determine the influence of learner pre-term access to graduate level courses delivered entirely online. The study employed a causal-comparative research design, analyzing archival data of the pre-term login patterns of online graduate students in an examination of early access to course materials presented asynchronously. The results of this investigation offer online practitioners further insight into the potential benefit of providing early access to online courses ahead of the official beginning of the term.
- ItemHomework Tips that Encourage a Trauma-Sensitive Environment: Homework Choice Board to Encourage a Trauma-Sensitive Environment(ASCD EDAdvantage, 2019-06-10) LaCour, Misty; Nyberg, Julia; McGlawn, Penny; Dees, LauraProviding choices to students experiencing trauma gives them a sense of control and empowerment in their learning. Consider implementing these strategies in your classroom.
- ItemEffective Use of the Hyphen, En Dash, and Em Dash in Legal Writing(The Federal Lawyer, 2019-10) Craig, BrianThis article provides a short overview when legal writers should use—and not use—these three different dash marks. The three punctuation dash marks include: the hyphen (-), the en dash (–), and the em dash (—).
- ItemExamining the Relationship Between Working from Home and Work Addiction(2021) Whipple, Melanie JWith the onset of the Coronavirus global pandemic, many organizations adapted by allowing their employees to work from home (WFH). Originally put into place to minimize the spread of infection, employees believed WFH would enable a better work-life balance. However, in a 2020 survey of 1,000 remote employees, 45% reported increased workload, while 40% said they experienced higher stress levels and mental exhaustion than before the pandemic. These statistics suggest the potential for work addiction to occur. This study examines the relationship between flexible work arrangements and work addiction. SurveyMonkey Audience was used to recruit 86 participants who completed a 16-item questionnaire that included the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) to determine if a statistically significant relationship exists. Statistical analysis including descriptive statistics, frequencies tables, one-way ANOVA, and correlation tables were performed on the data to provide statistical results like response frequencies, central tendency, standard deviation, skewness, range, p-value, confidence interval, and correlation tables. The study failed to detect evidence of a statistically significant relationship between work addiction and a work from home arrangement.