Reproductive and Developmental Disorders

Fromer, Deborah Barkin
Frazier, Linda M.
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Oxford Scholarship Online
This chapter describes reproductive and developmental disorders, with a focus on their recognition and prevention. Certain hazardous exposures at sufficient doses during preconception among men and women have been shown to increase the risk for health problems such as infertility, miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and birth defects. Women’s exposures during pregnancy can cause fetal death, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Fathers’ occupational exposures can secondarily expose pregnant women through contamination of the home environment. Numerous chemical pollutants readily cross the placenta and are transmitted into breast milk. Prenatal and perinatal exposures have been linked to abnormal development of the immune system, childhood cancer and learning disabilities. Specific examples such as lead and dibromochloropropane are provided in the chapter to illustrate general concepts. A final section addresses evaluation and control of risk.
Reproductive, Birth Defects, Infertility, Fertility, Hazardous Exposures
Frazier LM, Fromer DB. Reproductive and Developmental Disorders. In: Occupational and Environmental Health: Recognizing and preventing disease and injury, 7th Edition, Levy BS, Wegman DH, Sokas R, Eds. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.