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- ItemReproductive and Developmental Disorders(Oxford Scholarship Online, 2017-11) Fromer, Deborah Barkin; Frazier, Linda M.This chapter describes reproductive and developmental disorders, with a focus on their recognition and prevention. Certain hazardous exposures at sufficient doses during preconception among men and women have been shown to increase the risk for health problems such as infertility, miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and birth defects. Women’s exposures during pregnancy can cause fetal death, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Fathers’ occupational exposures can secondarily expose pregnant women through contamination of the home environment. Numerous chemical pollutants readily cross the placenta and are transmitted into breast milk. Prenatal and perinatal exposures have been linked to abnormal development of the immune system, childhood cancer and learning disabilities. Specific examples such as lead and dibromochloropropane are provided in the chapter to illustrate general concepts. A final section addresses evaluation and control of risk.
- ItemEpidemiology of Norovirus 2014-2017(The American Journal of Public Health Research, 2018) Griffea-Hollis, BrinaThe burden of disease can be detrimental to individuals, health systems and can be an overall burden on the public health system. While there have been efforts to educate the public on the prevention of the Norovirus, the emergence of outbreaks of Norovirus continue to increase across the United States. This purpose of this article is to present data on the outbreaks of Norovirus from years 2014-2017 and suggest additional options to help improve education of the general public in an effort to combat the disease.